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    PART IV
INCORPORATION OF COMPANIES AND MATTERS INCIDENTAL THERETO

14. Obligation to register certain associations, partnerships, etc., as companies.-- (1) No association, partnership or company consisting of more than twenty persons shall be formed for the purpose of carrying on any business that has for its; object the acquisition of gain by the association, partnership or company, or by the individual members thereof, unless it is registered’ as a company under this Ordinance.

(2) Every person who is a member of any association, partnership or company carrying on business in contravention of the provisions of this section shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees and also be personally liable for all the liabilities incurred in such business.

(3) Nothing in this section shall apply to--
(a) any society, body or association, other than a partnership, formed or incorporated under any other Pakistan law; or
(b) a joint family carrying on joint family business; or
(c) a partnership of two or more joint families where the total number of members of such families, excluding tile minor members, does not exceed twenty.
(d) a partnership formed to carry on practice as lawyers, accountants or any other profession where practice as a limited liability company is not permitted under the relevant laws or regulations for such practice.

MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION

15. Mode of forming a company.-- (1) Any [three] or more persons associated for any lawful purpose may, by subscribing their names to a memorandum of association and complying with the requirements of this Ordinance in respect of registration, form a public company and any [one] or more persons so associated may, in like manner, form a private company.

(2) A company foraged under subsection (1) may be a company with or without limited liability, that is to say,
(a) a company limited by shares, or
(b) a company limited by guarantee; or
(c) an unlimited company.

16. Memorandum of company limited by shares.-- In the case of a company limited by shares,-
(a) the memorandum shall state--
(i) the name of the company with the word "limited" as the last word of the name in the case of a public limited company, and the parenthesis and words "(Private) Limited" as the last words of the name in the case of a private limited company,
(ii) the Province or the part of Pakistan not forming part of a Province, as the case may be, in which the registered office of the company is to be situate;
(iii) the objects of the company, and except in the case of a trading corporation the territories to which they extend;
(iv) that the liability of the members is limited; and
(v) the amount of share capital with which the company proposes to be registered, and the division thereof into shares of a fixed amount:
(b) no subscriber of the memorandum shall take less than one share; and
(c) each subscriber of the memorandum shall write opposite to his name the number of shares he takes.

17. Memorandum of company limited by guarantee.--
In the case of a company limited by guarantee,-
(a) whether or not the company has a share capital, the memorandum shall state-
(i) the name of the company with the parenthesis and words "(Guarantee) Limited" as the last words of its name;
(ii) the Province or the part of Pakistan not forming part of a Province, as the case may be, in which registered office of the company is to be situate;
(iii) the objects of the company, and, except in the case of a trading corporation, the territories to which they extend;
(iv) that the liability of the members is limited; and
(v) that each member undertakes to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up while he is a member, or within one year afterwards, for payment of the debts and liabilities of the company contracted before he ceases to be a member, and of costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and for adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, such amount as may be required, not exceeding a specified amount; and
(b) if the company has a share capital,--
(i) the memorandum shall also state the amount of share capital with which the company proposes to be registered and the division thereof into shares of a fixed amount:
(ii) no subscriber of the memorandum shall take less than one share: and
(iii) each subscriber shall write opposite to his name the number of shares he takes.

18. Memorandum of unlimited company.-- In the case of an unlimited company--
(a) whether or not the company has a share capital, the memorandum shall stale
(i) the name of the company;
(ii) the Province or the part of Pakistan not forming part of a Province, as the case may be, in which the registered office of the company is to be situate; and
(iii) the objects of the company, and, except in the case of a trading corporation, the territories to which they extend; and
(b) if the company has a share capital,-
(i) no subscriber of the memorandum shall take less than one share; and
(ii) each subscriber shall write opposite to his name the number of shares he takes

19. Printing signature etc., of memorandum.-- (1) The memorandum shall be-
(a) printed:
(b) divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively,
"(c) signed by each subscriber, who shall add his present name in full, his occupation and fatherís name or, in the case of a married woman or widow, her husbandís or deceased husbandís name in full, his nationality and his usual residential address and such other particulars as may be prescribed, in the presence of a witness who shall attest the signature and shall likewise add his particulars; and".
(d) dated

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Ordinance or in any other law for the time being in force or the memorandum and articles, the memorandum and articles of a company shall be deemed to include, and always to have included, the power to enter into any arrangement for obtaining loans, advances or credit, as defined in the Banking Companies Ordinance, 1962 (LVII of 1962), and to issue other securities not based on interest for raising resources from a scheduled bank or a financial institution.

20. Restriction on alteration of memorandum.-- A company shall not alter 'the conditions contained in its memorandum except in the cases and in the mode and to the extent specified in this ordinance;

21. Alteration of memorandum.-- (1) Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, a company may, by special resolution, alter the provisions of its memorandum so as to change the place of its registered office from one Province to another or from one city or town in a Province to another; or from a part of Pakistan not forming part of a province to a Province or from a Province to a part of Pakistan not forming part of a Province or with respect to the objects of the company, so far as may be required to enable it-
(a) to carry on its business or more economically more efficiently; or
(b) to attain its main purpose by new or improved means; or
(c) to enlarge or change the local area of its operations; or
(d) to carry on some business, not being a business specified in its memorandum; which may conveniently or advantageously be combined with the business of the company; or
(e) to restrict or abandon any of the objects specified in the memorandum; or
(f) to sell or dispose of the whole or any part of the undertaking of the company; or
(g) to amalgamate with any other company or body of persons.

(2) The alteration shall not take effect until and except in so far-as its is confirmed by the Authority on petition:
Provided that an alteration so as to change the place of registered office of a company from a place in the Province of the Punjab to the Islamabad Capital Territory or from the latter to a place in the Province of the Punjab, or from one city in a Province to another, shall not require confirmation by the Authority.

(3) Before continuing the alteration, the Authority must be satisfied--
(a) that sufficient notice has been given to every holder of debentures of the company, and to any person or class of persons whose interest will in the opinion of the Authority, be affected by the alteration; and
(b) that, with respect to every creditor who in the opinion of the Authority is entitled to object, and who signifies his objection in manner directed by the Authority, either his consent to the alteration has been obtained or his debt or claim has been discharged or determined, or has been secured to the satisfaction of the Authority.
Provided that the Authority may, in the case of any person or class of persons, for special reasons, dispense with the notice required by clause (a).

22. Power of authority when confirming alteration.--
The Authority may make an order confirming the alteration either wholly or in part, and on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit, and may make such order as to costs as it thinks proper.

23. Exercise of discretion by Authority.-- The Authority shall in exercising its discretion under sections 21 and 22 have regard to the rights and interests of the members of the company or of any class of them, as well as to the rights and interests of creditors, and may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the proceedings in order that an arrangement may be made to the satisfaction of the Authority for purchase of the interests of dissident members; and may give such directions and make such orders as it may think expedient for facilitating or carrying into effect any such arrangement:
Provided that "no part" of the capital of the company may be expended in any such purchase.

24. Procedure on confirmation of the alteration.-- (1) A certified copy of the order confirming the alteration, together with a printed copy of the memorandum as altered, shall, within ninety days from the date of the order, be filed by the company with the registrar, and he shall register the same, and shall certify the registration under this hand, and the certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Ordinance with respect to the alteration and the confirmation thereof been complied with and thenceforth the memorandum so altered shall be the memorandum of the company.

(2) Where the alteration involves a transfer of the registered office from one Province to another, or from the Islamabad Capital Territory to a Province or from a Province to Islamabad Capital Territory, a certified copy of the order confirming such alteration shall be filed by the company with the registrar in each of such provinces or the Islamabad Capital Territory, as the case may be, and each such registrar shall register the same, and shall certify under his hand the registration thereof, and the registrar for the Province or the Territory from which such office is transferred shall Send to the registrar for the other Province or Territory all documents relating to registered or filed in his office

(3) The Authority may by order at any time extend the time 'for the filing of documents with the registrar under this section for such period as it thinks proper.

25. Effect of failure to register within ninety days.--
No such alteration shall have any operation until registration thereof has been duly effected in accordance with the provisions of section 24, and if such registration is not effected within ninety days next after the date of the order of the Authority confirming the alteration, or within such further time, as may be allowed by the Authority, in accordance with provisions section 24, such alteration and order, if any, and all proceedings connected therewith shall, at the expiration of such period of ninety days or such further time, as the case may be, become null and void:

Provided that the Authority may, on sufficient cause shown, revive the order or alteration, as the case may be, on application made within a further period of ninety days.

ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

26. Registration of articles.-- (1) There may, in the case of a company limited by shares, and there shall, in the case of a company limited by guarantee or an unlimited company, be registered with the memorandum, articles of association signed by the subscribers to the memorandum and setting out regulations for the company.

(2) Articles of association may adopt all or any of the regulations contained in Table A in the First Schedule.

(3) In the case of an unlimited company or a company limited by guarantee, the articles, if the company has a share capital, shall state the amount of share capital with which the company proposes to be registered.

(4) In case of an unlimited company or a company limited by guarantee, if the company has not a share capital, the articles shall state the number of members with which the company proposes to be registered.

(5) In the case of a company limited by shares and registered after the commencement of this Ordinance, if articles are not registered, or, if articles are registered, in so far as the articles do not exclude or modify the regulations in Table A in the First Schedule, those regulations shall, so far as applicable, be the regulations of the company in the same manner and to the same extent as if they were contained in duly registered articles.

(6) The articles of every company shall be explicit and without ambiguity and, without prejudice to the generality of foregoing, shall list and enumerate the voting and other rights attached to the different classes of shares and other securities, if any, issued or to be issued by it.

27. Printing, signature, etc. of articles.-
- The articles shall be--
(a) printed;
(b) divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively;
"(c) signed by each subscriber, who shall add his present name in full, his occupation and fatherís name or, in the case of a married woman or widow, her husbandís or deceased husbandís name in full, his nationality and his usual residential address and such other particulars as may be prescribed, in the presence of a witness who shall attest the signature and shall likewise add his particulars;
(d) dated.                   (missing)

28. Alteration of articles.-- Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance and to the conditions contained in its memorandum, a company may by special resolution alter or add to its articles, and any alteration or addition so made shall be as valid as if originally contained in the articles, and be subject in like manner to alteration by special resolution:
Provided that, where such alteration affects the substantive rights or liabilities of members or of a class of members, it shall be carried out only if a majority of at least three-fourth of the members or of the class of members affected by such alteration, as the case may be, personally or through proxy vote for such alteration.

FORMS OF MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES

29. Form of memorandum and articles.-- The form of;--
(a) the memorandum of association of a company limited by shares;
(b) the memorandum and articles of association of a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital;
(c) the memorandum and articles of association of a company limited by guarantee and having a share capital;
(d) the memorandum and articles of association of an unlimited company having a share capital;
shall be respectively in accordance with the forms set out in Tables B.C.D and E in the First Schedule or as near thereto as circumstances admit.

GENERAL PROVISIONS WITH RESPECT TO REGISTRATION OF
MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES

30. Registration of memorandum and articles, etc.-- (1) The memorandum and the articles, if any, shall be filed with the registrar in the Province or the part of Pakistan not forming part of a Province, as the case may be, in which the registered office of the company is stated by the memorandum to be situate.

(2) A declaration by such person as may be prescribed in this behalf, or by a person named in the articles as a director, or other officer of company, of compliance with all or any of the requirements of this Ordinance and the rules made thereunder shall be filed with the registrar; and the registrar may accept such a declaration as sufficient evidence of such compliance.

(3) If the registrar is satisfied that the company is being formed for lawful purposes, that none of its objects stated in the memorandum is inappropriate or deceptive or insufficiently expressive and that all the requirements of this Ordinance and the rules made thereunder have been complied with in respect of registration and matters precedent and incidental thereto, he shall retain and register the memorandum and articles. if any.

(4) If registration of the memorandum is refused, the subscribers of the memorandum or any one of them authorised by them in writing may either supply the deficiency and remove the defect pointed out, or within thirty days of the order of refusal prefer an appeal--
(a) where the order of refusal has been passed by an additional registrar, a joint registrar, a deputy registrar or an assistant registrar, to the registrar; and
(b) where the order of refusal has been passed, or upheld in appeal, by the registrar, to the Authority.

(5) An order of the Authority under subsection (4) shall be final and shall not be called in question before any Court or other authority.

31. Effect of memorandum and articles.--(1) The memorandum and articles shall, when registered, bind the company and members thereof to the same extent as if they respectively had been signed by each member and contained a covenant on the part of each member, his heirs, and legal representatives, to observe and be bound by all the provisions of the memorandum and of the articles, subject to the provisions of this Ordinance.

(2) All moneys payable by any member to the company under the memorandum or articles shall be a debt due from him to the company.

32. Effect of registration.--
(1) On the registration of the memorandum of a company, the registrar shall certify under his hand that the company is incorporated and, in the case of a limited company, that company is limited by shares or guarantee, as the case may be.

(2) From date of incorporation mentioned in the certificate of incorporation, the subscriber of the memorandum, together with such other persons as may from time to time become members of the company, shall be a body corporate by name contained in the memorandum, capable forthwith of exercising all the functions of an incorporated company, and having perpetual success-ion and a common seal, but with such liability on the part of the members to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up as is mentioned in this Ordinance.

33. Conclusiveness of certificate of incorporation.-- A certificate of incorporation given by the registrar in respect of any association shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Ordinance in respect of registration and of matters precedent and incidental thereto have been complied with, and that the association is a company authorised to be registered and duly registered under this Ordinance.

34. Effect of alteration in memorandum or articles.-- Notwithstanding anything contained in the memorandum or articles of a company, no member of the comp-any shall be bound by an alteration made in the memorandum or articles after the date on which he became a member if and so far as the alteration requires him to take or subscribe for more shares than the number held by him at the date on which the alteration is made, or in any way increases his liability as at that date to contribute to the share capital of, or otherwise to pay money to, the company:
Provided that this section shall not apply in any case where the member agrees in writing either before or after alteration is made to be bound thereby.

35. Copies of memorandum and articles to be given to members.- (1) Every company shall send to every member, at his request and within fourteen days thereof, on payment of such sum, not exceeding the prescribed amount, as the company may fix, a copy of the memorandum and the articles if any.

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirements of subsection (1), it shall be liable for each offence to a fine not exceeding one hundred rupees.

36. Alteration of memorandum or articles to be noted in every copy.- (1) Where an alteration is made in the memorandum or articles of a company, every copy of the memorandum or articles issued after the date of the alteration shall conform to the memorandum or articles as so altered.

(2) If, where any such alteration has been made, the company at any time after the date of the alteration issues any copies of the memorandum or articles which do not conform to the memorandum or articles as so altered, it shall be liable to a fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for each copy so issued and every officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default shall be liable to the like penalty.

PROVISIONS WITH RESPECT TO NAMES OF COMPANIES

37. Prohibitions of certain names.-- (1) No company shall be registered by a name which in the opinion of the Authority is inappropriate or deceptive or is designed to exploit or offend the religious susceptibilities of the people.

(2) A company shall not be registered by a name identical with that by which a company in existence is already registered, or so nearly resembling that name as to be calculated to device, except where the company in existence is in the course of being dissolved and signifies its consent in such manner as the registrar requires.

(3) Except with the prior approval in writing of the Authority, no company shall be registered by a name which contains any words suggesting or calculated to suggest
(a) the patronage of any, past or present, Pakistani or foreign, Head of State;
(b) any connection with the Federal Government or a Provincial Government or any department or authority of any such Government;
(c) any connection with any corporation set up by or under any Federal or Provincial law, or
(d) the patronage of, or any connection with, any foreign Government or any international organization.
(4) Whenever a question arises as to whether or not the name of a company is in violation of the foregoing provisions of this section, the decision of the Authority shall be final.

38. Rectification of name of a company.-- A company which, through inadvertence or otherwise, is registered by a name in contravention of the provisions of section 37,
(a) may, with approval of the registrar, change its name; and
(b) shall, if the registrar so directs, within thirty days of the receipt of such direction, change its name with the approval of the registrar:
Provided that registrar shall, before issuing a direction for change of name, afford the company an opportunity to make representation against the proposed direction:
Provided further that no direction under clause (b) shall be issued after the expiration of three years from date of registration of the company or registration by its new name, as the case may be.

39. Change of name by a company.-
- A company may, by special resolution and with the approval of the registrar signified in writing, change its name:
Provided that no such approval shall be required where only change in the name of a company is the addition thereto or, as the case may be, the deletion therefrom, of the parenthesis and word (Private)" consequent on the conversion in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance of a public company into a private company or of a private company into a public company.

40. Registration of change of name and effect thereof.-- (1) Where a company changes its name, the registrar shall enter the new name on the register in place of former name, and shall issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet circumstances of the case; and, on issue of such a certificate, the change of name shall be complete.

(2) Where a company changes its name it shall, for a period of one year from the date of issue of a certificate by the registrar under subsection (1), continue to mention its former name alongwith its new name on the outside of every office or place in which its business is carried on and in every document or notice referred to in clauses (a) and (c) of section 143:

Provided that the addition or deletion, as the case may be, of the parenthesis and word "(Private)" from the name of a company consequent on the conversion in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance of a public company into a private company or of a private company into a public company shall not be deemed to be a change of name for the purpose of this subsection.

(3) The change of name shall not effect any rights or obligations of the company, or render defective any legal proceedings by or against the company; and any legal proceedings that might have been continued or commenced against the company by its former name may be continued by or commenced against the company by its new name.

41. Alteration of names on commencement of Ordinance and change of status of company.--
(1) As from the date of commencement of this Ordinance, the name of every existing company shall be deemed to include, before the last word "Limited", the parenthesis and word "(Private)" in the case of a private company and the parenthesis and word "(Guarantee)" in the case of a company limited by guarantee, and the memorandum of association, the certificate of incorporation and other books and papers shall be deemed to be altered accordingly from that date.

(2) On conversion of a public company into a private company in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance, the registrar shall add the parenthesis and word "(Private)" before the word "Limited" in the name of the company in the register and shall also issue a certificate to meet the circumstances of the case.

(3) On conversion of a private company into a public company in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance, the registrar shall omit the parenthesis and word "(Private)" in the name of the company in the register and shall also issue a certificate to meet the circumstances of the case.

(4) If default is made in complying with a direction issued by the registrar under section 38, or with requirements of subsection (2) of section 40, or in giving effect to the provisions of subsection (1) of this section the company, and every director or officer of the company who is knowingly and willfully in default, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding ten thousand rupees and to a further fine not exceeding two hundred rupees for every day after the first during which the default continues.

ASSOCIATIONS NOT FOR PROFIT

42. Power to dispense with "Limited in the name of charitable and other companies.-- (1) Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Authority that an association capable of being formed as a limited company has been or is about to be formed for promoting commerce, art, science, religion, sports, social services, charity or any other useful object, and applies or intends to apply its profits, if any, or other income in promoting its objects, and to prohibit the payment of any dividend to its members, the Authority may grant a licence and direct that the association be registered as a company with limited liability, without the addition of the words "Limited", "(Private) Limited or "(Guarantee) Limited", as the case may be, to its name, and the association may be registered accordingly.

(2) A licence under subsection (I) may be granted on such conditions and subject to such regulations as the Authority thinks fit and those conditions and regulations shall be binding on the association and shall, if the Authority so directs, be inserted in the memorandum and articles, or in one of those documents.

(3) The association shall on registration enjoy all the privileges of a limited company and be subject to all its obligations, except those of using the word or words "Limited", "(Private) Limited" or "(Guarantee) Limited", as the case may be, as part of its name.

(4) A licence under this section may at any time be revoked by the Authority, and upon its revocation the registrar shall enter the word or words "Limited", "(Private) Limited" or "(Guarantee) Limited", as the case may be, at the end of the name of the association upon the register, and the association shall cease to enjoy the exemptions and privileges granted by the preceding subsections:
Provided that, before a licence is so revoked, the Authority shall give to the association notice in writing of its intention, and shall afford the association an opportunity of submitting a representation in opposition to the revocation.

COMPANIES LIMITED BY GUARANTEE

43. Provision as to companies limited by guarantee.-- (1) In the case of a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital, every provision in the memorandum or articles or in any resolution of the company purporting to give any person a right to participate in the divisible profits of the company otherwise than as a member shall be void.

(2) For the purpose of the provisions of this Ordinance relating to the memorandum of a company limited by guarantee and of subsection (1), every provision in the memorandum or articles, or in any resolution, of a company limited by guarantee purporting to divide the undertaking of the company into shares or interests shall be treated as a provision for a share capital, notwithstanding that the nominal amount or number of the shares or interests is not specified thereby.

PROVISIONS RELATING TO CONVERSION OF PUBLIC COMPANY INTO PRIVATE COMPANY AND VICE VERSA, AND OTHER MATTERS

44. Conversion of public company into private company:-- No public company shall, except with the prior approval of the Authority in writing, and subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Authority in this behalf, convert itself into a private company.

45. Prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus to be fled by private company on ceasing to be private company.-- (1) If a company, being a private company, alters its articles in such a manner that they no longer include the provisions which, under clause (28) of subsection (1) of section 2, are required to be included in the articles of a company in order to constitute it a private company, the company
(a) shall, as on the date of the alteration, cease to be a private company, and
(b) shall, within a period of fourteen days after the said date, file with the registrar either a prospectus or a statement in lieu of prospectus as specified in subsection (2) or sub section (3).

(2) Every prospectus filed under subsection (1) shall state the matters specified in section 1 of Part I of the Second Schedule and set out the reports specified in section 2 of that Part, and the said sections 1 and 2 shall have effect subject to the provisions contained in section 3 of that Part.

(3) Every statement in lieu of prospectus filed under subsection (1) shall be in the form and contain the particulars set out in section I of Part III of the Second Schedule and, in the cases mentioned in section 2 of that Part, set out the reports specified therein, and the said sections 1 and 2 shall have effect subject to the provisions contained in section 3 of that part.

(4) Where the persons making any such report as is referred to in subsection (2) or subsection (3) have made therein, or have, without giving reasons indicated therein, made any such adjustments as are mentioned in clause 3 6 of Part I of the Second Schedule or clause 5 of section 3 of Part III of the Second Schedule, as the case may be, the prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus filed as aforesaid shall have endorsed thereon or attached there-to a written statement, signed by those persons, setting out the adjustments and giving the reasons therefor.

(5) If default is made in complying with the provisions of any of the preceding subsections, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees and to a further fine not exceeding one hundred rupees for every day after the first during which the default continues.

(6) Where any prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus filed under sub-section (1) includes any untrue statement, any person who authorised the filing of such prospectus or statement shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees, or with both, unless he proves either that the statement was immaterial or that he had reasonable ground to believe, and did, up to the time of the filing of the prospectus or statement, believe, that the statement was true.

(7) For the purposes of sub section (6)--
(a) a statement included in a prospectus or a statement in lieu of prospectus shall be deemed to be untrue if it is misleading in the form and context in which it is included; and
(b) where the omission from a prospectus or a statement in lieu of prospectus of any matter is calculated to mislead, the prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus shall be deemed, in respect of such omission, to be a prospectus or a statement in lieu of prospectus in which an untrue statement is included.

(8) For the purposes of subsection (6) and clause (a) of subsection (7), the expression "included" when used with reference to a prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus, means included in the prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus itself or contained in any report or memorandum appearing on the face thereof, or by reference incorporated therein.

46. Consequence of default in complying with conditions constituting a comp-any a private company.-
- Where the articles of a company include the provisions which, under clause (28) of subsection (1) of section 2, are required to be included in the articles of a company in order to constitute it a private company, but default is made in complying with any of those provisions, the company shall cease to be entitled to the privileges and exemptions conferred on private companies by or under this Ordinance, and this Ordinance shall apply to the company as if it Were not a private company:

Provided that the Authority, on being satisfied that the failure to comply with the conditions was accidental or due to inadvertence or to some other sufficient cause, or that on other ground it is just and equitable to grant relief, may, on the application of the company or any other person interes-ted and on such terms and conditions as seem to the Authority just and expedient, order that the company be relieved from such consequences as aforesaid.

CARRYING ON BUSINESS WITH LESS THAN THE LEGAL MINIMUM OF MEMBERS

47. Liability for carrying on business will less than [three] or, in the case of a private company, two members-- If at any time the number of members of a company ["other than a single member company"] is reduced, in the case of a private company, below two, or in the case of any other company, below [three], and the company carries on business for more than six months while the number is so reduced, every person who is a member of the company during the time that it so carries on business after those six months and is cognizant of the fact that it is carrying on business with fewer than two members or seven members, as the case may be, shall be severally liable for payment of the whole debts of the company contracted during that time, and may be sued therefor without joinder in the suit of any other member.

SERVICE AND AUTHENTICATION OF DOCUMENTS

48. Service of documents on company.-- A document may be served on a company or an officer thereof by sending it to the company or officer at registered office of the company by post under a certificate of posting or by registered post, or by leaving it at the registered office of the company.

49. Service of documents on registrar.-- A document may be served on the registrar by sending it to him at his office by registered post, or by delivering it to him, or leaving it for him at his office, against an acknowledgment of receipt.

50. Service of notice on members, etc.-
(1) A notice may be given by a comp-any to any member either personally or by sending it by post to him to his registered address or, if he has no registered address in Pakistan, to the address, if any, within Pakistan supplied by him to the company for the giving of notices to him.

(2) Where a notice is sent by post, service of the notice shall be deemed to be effected by properly addressing, prepaying and posting a letter containing the notice and, unless the contrary is proved, to have been effected at the time at which the letter would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.

(3) If a member has no registered address in Pakistan, and has not supplied to the company an address within Pakistan for the giving of notices to him, a notice addressed to him or to the shareholders generally and advertised in a newspaper circulating in the Province or part of Pakistan not forming part of a Province in which the registered office of the company is situate shall be deemed to be duly given to him on the day on which the advertisement appears:
Provided that in the case of a listed company such notice shall in addition to its being published as aforesaid be also published at least in one issue each of a daily newspaper in English language and a daily newspaper in Urdu language having circulation in Province in which the stock exchange on which the company is listed is situate.

(4) A notice may be given by company to joint-holders of a share by giving the notice to the joint holders named first in register in respect of the share.

(5) A notice may be given by company to the persons entitled to a share in consequence of the death or insolvency of a member by sending it through the post in a prepaid letter addressed to them by name, or by title or representatives of the deceased, or assignees of the insolvent, or by any like description, at the address, if any, in Pakistan supplied for the purpose by the person claiming to be so entitled, or until such an address has been so supplied by giving the notice in any manner in which same might have been given if death or insolvency had not occurred.

(6) In addition to any other mode provided by this Ordinance for notice of any general meeting, notice of every general meeting shall be given in some manner herein before authorised to-
(a) every member of the company except those members who, having no registered address within Pakistan, have not supplied to the company an address within Pakistan for the giving of notice to them.
(b) every person entitled to a share in consequence of the death or insolvency of a member who, but for his death or insolvency, would be entitled to receive, notice of the meeting and;
(c) the auditors of the company.

51. Authentication of documents and proceedings.-- Save as expressly provided in this Ordinance, a document or proceeding requiring authemication by a company may be signed by the chief executive or a director, secretary or other authorised officer of the company, and need not be under its common seal.


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